Making Connections: Target Practice
By Chelsea E. Toledo, M.A. on August 13, 2014
Background: An adult’s brain contains billions of nerve cells, called neurons, intricately connected to carry the signals controlling our senses and behaviors. During embryonic development, the nervous system begins to take shape around the fifth week of clinical gestation. Very little research has demonstrated how neurons of this early nervous system establish proper connections in the healthy brain – and how mistakes may lead to neurological disorders.
What’s New: On July 31, 2014, a study exploring the birth order of nerve cells appeared in the journal Cell Reports online ahead of print. The researchers focused on the cells connecting the eyes to the brain—called retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)—in mice. They found that early-born RGCs sampled many sites before establishing their final connection with other brain cells. By contrast, later-born RGCs were selective from the start in establishing neurological connections.
Why it’s important: This study suggests that the order in which brain cells form is important to how neurons establish proper neurological configuration. Future studies could determine whether the neurological dysfunction observed in disorders like autism are linked to differences in brain cells’ birth order.
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