Study Pinpoints Differences in Autistic Brain
By Chelsea E. Toledo, M.A. on March 31, 2015
Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by differences in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Researchers have hypothesized that the functioning of—and communication between—related brain regions is atypical in people affected by the disorder. Their studies have largely focused on select areas of the brain, as opposed to observing them within the context of the entire brain system.
What’s new: On March 20, 2015, the journal Brain published a large study providing a whole-brain perspective of ASD versus typical development. The researchers used a grid-based technique to analyze the entire brain at once with data from existing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans of the resting brain. They found that, in comparison to 509 typically developing individuals, the 419 participants with ASD showed differences in 20 key areas.
Why it’s important: The observed differences were in areas of the brain active in processing facial expressions, sense of self, and theory of mind—the ability to discern and predict other’s mental states. Future studies could leverage this technique to learn more about brain function in obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, and schizophrenia.
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